Bounding Real Tensor Optimizations via the Numerical Range


We show how the numerical range of a matrix can be used to bound the optimal value of certain optimization problems over real tensor product vectors. Our bound is stronger than the trivial bounds based on eigenvalues, and can be computed significantly faster than bounds provided by semidefinite programming relaxations. We discuss numerous applications to other hard linear algebra problems, such as showing that a real subspace of matrices contains no rank-one matrix, and showing that a linear map acting on matrices is positive.


  • Nathaniel Johnston
  • Logan Pipes


Cite as:

  • N. Johnston and L. Pipes. Bounding Real Tensor Optimizations via the Numerical Range. Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra, 39:289–306, 2023.

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